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Injury Video Library

Learn about a multitude of sports injuries, how they affect athletic performance, treatment options, and expectations for recovery in HCA Virginia Sports Medicine's video library. All of our videos are housed in the HCA Virginia Sports Medicine YouTube playlist, and each topic video will open in a separate window.


Injuries and Conditions

Fractures

An ankle fracture is a break of a bone in the ankle joint, which is comprised of three bones - the tibia (shin), which is the main bone of the lower leg that runs along the inside of the leg, the fibula, which is the smaller bone of the lower leg that runs along the outside of the leg, and the talus, which is the bone that provides the connection between the leg and the foot, and is less often fractured than the others. The ankle joint is supported by three groups of ligaments. An injury that causes a fracture may also damage one or more of these ligaments. Treatment will depend on the severity of the injury.

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General Ankle Sprains

An ankle sprain is a partial or complete tear of the ligaments that support the ankle. Ligaments are strong bands of tissue that cross joints and connect bones to each other. Symptoms of an ankle sprain may include pain, swelling, and bruising around the ankle, worsening of pain when walking, standing, pressing on the sore area, or moving the ankle inward, an inability to move the ankle joint without pain, and/or a popping or tearing sound at the time of the injury. Treatment involves giving the ankle time to heal, and following the RICE protocol for a period of time.

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High Ankle Sprain

An ankle sprain is a partial or complete tear of the ligaments that support the ankle. Ligaments are strong bands of tissue that cross joints and connect bones to each other. A high ankle sprain is one that occurs above the ankle joint, and is graded between 1-3 depending on the severity of injury. High ankle sprains occur from sudden twisting injuries, which occur commonly in contact and cutting sports. Athletes will typically say the pain radiates up the leg from the ankle, and is worse with cutting motions that mimic the original twisting injury.

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Low Ankle Sprain

A low ankle sprain involves an injury to the ligament running along the outside of the ankle called the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL). This ligament is one of the primary ankle stabilizers and is frequently the culprit when an athlete “rolls” an ankle. Pain, swelling, and sometimes bruising are symptoms of this injury, and usually occur on the outside of the foot, just below the ankle joint.

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Jones Fracture

A jones fracture is one that occurs on the junction of the fifth metatarsal bone (near the midportion) of the foot. This injury can be caused by both acute trauma and chronic stress, and is generally associated with repeated weightbearing and pressure on the involved foot. An acute instance of a jones fracture is gender agnostic, and generally occurs in non-athletes older than 21 years of age. Chronic fractures generally occur in athletes between 15 and 21 years of age, with varying degrees of involved treatment, depending on the severity of the injury.

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Elbow Dislocation

An elbow dislocation occurs when the bones are pulled out of place, and it often involves damage to the ligaments and sometimes damage to the bones. The elbow includes 3 bones, the humerus of the upper arm, and the radius and ulna of the lower arm. The bottom portion of the upper arm bone sits in a groove in the ulna. The end of the radius lies against the end of the upper arm bone and allows the forearm to rotate. A series of ligaments connects the bones and keeps them in place during movement. A dislocation will make certain movements impossible.

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Finger Injury

There are many finger injuries that can occur in athletes, with sprains and fractures being the most prevalent. Some of these conditions include flexor (the muscles that run from the palm to the fingertip) and extensor (the muscles on the back of the hand and finger) tendon injuries, finger dislocation, and most specific injuries such as mallet finger and Boutonnire deformity, which prevents straightening of the finger(s).

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Thumb Injuries

Thumb injuries can happen in almost all sports and activities, and although seemingly small, can wreak havoc on performance and daily life. The ulnar collateral ligament acts like a hinge and helps your thumb to function properly. If you injure your thumb, you could lose some or all of your ability to grasp items between your thumb and index finger, or to grasp well with the entire hand. This is especially problematic in gripping sports such as football, baseball, softball, and basketball.

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Tommy John Surgery

Tommy John Surgery (TJS), known in medical practice as ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction, is a surgical graft procedure in which the ulnar collateral ligament in the medial elbow is replaced with a tendon from elsewhere in the body. This surgery is most common in baseball players, but can occur in other athletes. The procedure is named for MLB pitcher Tommy John, who was the first to successfully undergo the surgery.

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Wrist Tendonitis

Tendonitis is an injury to a tendon that can cause pain, swelling, and limited movement. It can include inflammation or tiny tears in the tissue with no significant inflammation. Treatment depends on the severity of the issue, and in a throwing or catching athlete, wrist tendonitis can be a limiting condition. The athlete will be braced, but most likely back in action very quickly and not miss a game at all.

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Fractured Clavicle (Collarbone)

A clavicle fracture is a break in the clavicle bone (also called the collarbone). It connects the sternum (breastplate) to the shoulder. A clavicle fracture is caused by trauma to the clavicle bone, and can happen in one or more of three different places. The trauma is usually caused by either a direct blow to the clavicle or falling on an outstretched arm or on the point of the shoulder. Either of these can be common football injuries.

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Groin Pull

A groin pull is a partial or complete tear of the small fibers of the adductor muscles. The adductors are a group of muscles located on the inner side of the thigh. They start in the groin area and run down the inner thigh to attach to the inner side of the knee.

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Herniated Disc

Discs are small circular, compressible cushions between the vertebral bones in the spinal column. A herniated disc bulges from its proper place, putting pressure on spinal nerves. Although this can occur throughout the spine, it is most common in the lower (lumbar) spine. A herniated disc can be caused by trauma or reduced water content, which results in flattening and less cushioning. It is generally associated with normal aging, and is more common in people after age 30. Other factors that may increase your chance of a herniated disc include back strain (from repeated heavy lifting), smoking, obesity, and diabetes.

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Hip Pointer

A hip pointer is a bruise to the upper part of your hip where many muscles, including abdominal muscles, attach. A hip pointer can involve injury to bone and soft tissue. Hip pointers are caused by a direct blow to the bony part of the pelvis, commonly occurring when the pelvis comes into contact with a hard object, like a helmet. It can also occur by taking a hard fall onto the hip, as happens frequently in football and other contact sports.

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Low Back Pain

Low back pain is an ache or discomfort in the area of the lower part of the back and spinal column. The lower spinal column has many small bones and muscles that surround and protect the spinal cord and nerves. Low back pain is common and affects most adults at some point in their lives. Low back pain can get worse with back motion, sitting, standing, bending, and twisting. If a nerve is irritated, the pain may spread into the buttock or leg on the affected side. Muscle weakness or numbness may occur. Check with your doctor if this pain persists.

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Side-Stitch

A side-stitch is an intense stabbing pain under the lower edge of the ribcage that occurs while exercising. It is also referred to as exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP). The most likely cause is a spasm in the diaphragm when fatigued, and they happen more often to beginner athletes or those who are increasing their training regimens to achieve new goals.

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Spinal Compression Fracture

The bones of the back are called the vertebrae. A vertebral (spinal) fracture is a break in one of these bones. A vertebral compression fracture occurs when the front part of the bone is squeezed or compressed. This type of fracture can be caused by acute trauma or osteoporosis. Symptoms include pain, numbness or weakness, difficulty walking, and in some cases, loss of bowel and bladder function. There are several treatments for this condition, both surgical and non-surgical.

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Spinal Stenosis

Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal. The spinal canal is located in the backbone. It is a small space that holds the nerve roots and spinal cord. If this space becomes smaller, it can squeeze the nerves and the spinal cord. This causes pain and other symptoms. Stenosis can occur anywhere along the spinal cord. It is most common in the low back (lumbar) region.

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Spondylolysis (Low Spine Stress Fracture)

Spondylolysis is a stress fracture occuring in the lower back. It occurs in a part of the vertebrae (spinal bone). About 90% of the time, it is in the fifth lumbar vertebra. It can fracture on one or both sides (bilateral). Left untreated, it can lead to spondylolisthesis. This is a more serious condition. The vertebra slips forward on the one below it. Both conditions can cause back pain. This fracture is the most common cause of back pain in adolescent athletes.

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Sports Hernias

A hernia occurs when an internal part of the body pokes out through a muscle or surrounding tissue. This can happen through a rupture, tear, or weakness in the structure. Sports hernias (athletic pubalgia) generally occurs in the lower abdomen or groin area. Hernias can have any number of causes, such as overexertion, coughing, surgery, trauma, or a natural weakness in the abdominal wall or inguinal or femoral canal.

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Blisters and Infections

Blisters are fluid-filled bumps on the skin that are generally caused by friction or constant pressure, such as rubbing or wearing an ill-fitting shoe. The fluid in a blister is usually clear, but may be bloody, cloudy, or containing pus. Blisters often heal without treatment, but should be treated tenderly. You should not pop, lance, or scratch the blister, and should check with your doctor if the blister is abnormally large, is in a sensitive area, is associated with a burn, or begins to show signs of infection (such as increasing redness around the blister, red streaks, severe swelling, pus drainage, fever, or an increase in pain).

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Cramps

Muscle cramps are when a muscle gets tight (contracts) without you trying to tighten it, and it does not relax. Cramps may involve all or part of one or more muscles. The most commonly involved muscle groups are the back of the lower leg/calf, the back of the thigh (hamstrings), and the front of the thigh (quadriceps). Cramps in the feet, hands, arms, abdomen, and along the rib cage are also very common. Muscle cramps are common and may be stopped by stretching the muscle. The cramping muscle may feel hard or bulging.

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Dehydration

Dehydration results from excessive loss of fluids from the body, and can be a very serious condition. To work properly, the body requires a certain amount of water and other elements, called electrolytes. Drinking and eating help to replace fluids that have been lost through the body’s functions. Fluids are normally lost through sweat, urine, bowel movements, and breathing. If you lose a lot of fluids and do not replace them, you can become dehydrated. In athletes, the months of August and September are the most risky because of the hot temperatures and exhaustive activity. Swimmers can also be at risk of dehydration that goes undiagnosed in the immediate term because the usual cues of overheating (feeling hot on the skin) aren’t as prevalent.

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General Fractures

A fracture is a break in any bone in the body. There are different kinds of fracture. The bone may be fractured but stable, which is known as a simple fracture or a closed fracture. Bone fragments may be sticking through the skin, which is known as a compound fracture or an open fracture. Each fracture is different, and should be reviewed by a doctor for prognosis and treatment.

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Heat Injuries

Heat exhaustion is when the body overheats when you are too active in hot temperatures. Heat stroke is a more severe illness that can be life-threatening.

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Infections After Injury (Staph)

A staph infection is an infection caused by common bacteria. It may cause a simple skin infection or develop into an infection in the bloodstream or major organs. The bacteria that cause staph infections are often present on the skin without causing problems. An infection develops when there is a break in the skin and the bacteria enters the body. The bacteria may only affect local skin tissue or can enter the bloodstream and pass to other areas of the body such as the heart, bones, or joints. Infections after injuries can prolong an athlete's recovery and compound to be worse than the initial injury.

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Muscle Contusion (Bruise)

A contusion (bruise) occurs when blood vessels are damaged or broken after an injury. The raised area of the contusion is the result of blood and fluid leaking from the injured blood vessels into the tissue. You usually see a discolored, purplish area that may take 2-3 weeks to go away. The condition is a minor problem that usually needs little treatment. Consult with your doctor if the injury does not clear up within a few weeks or if it is severe.

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Overtraining Syndrome

Overtraining syndrome results when athletes work to push the limits of their endurance and body, and don't spend the proper time and effort to recover afterward. This imbalance of training and recovery can lead to regression in performance, along with both physiological and psychological side effects.

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Sprains vs. Strains

A sprain is an injury that damages a ligament. A ligament is a firm, fibrous band of tissue. It connects 2 bones across a joint. There are ligaments crossing all of the joints in the body. A strain is an injury that damages the internal structure of the muscle. It may be small, or severe enough to cause internal bleeding and lengthening of muscle fibers. If the damaged parts of the muscle pull away from each other, it is called a muscle rupture.

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Concussion

A concussion is an injury to your brain caused by a sudden, violent jolt that interferes with how the brain works. The concussive force can cause stretching and tearing to the brain and soft tissue that supports it. It can affect brain tasks like memory, balance, concentration, judgement, and coordination. Most will have a full recovery but the brain will need time to heal with the proper rest and monitoring. Symptoms may last for days, weeks, or even longer. They may be immediately present or appear a few hours or days after the injury. The symptoms that develop will depend on the severity of the injury. Click for more detail about concussions.

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Fractured Clavicle (Collarbone)

A clavicle fracture is a break in the clavicle bone (also called the collarbone). It connects the sternum (breastplate) to the shoulder. A clavicle fracture is caused by trauma to the clavicle bone, and can happen in one or more of three different places. The trauma is usually caused by either a direct blow to the clavicle or falling on an outstretched arm or on the point of the shoulder. Either of these can be common football injuries.

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Neck Stinger or Burner

Per the AAFP, a neck stinger (also called a burner) is a nerve injury resulting from trauma to the neck and shoulder. Its primary symptom is burning pain radiating down one upper extremity. The pain is sometimes accompanied by numbness, paresthesias or weakness. Burners occur most commonly in football players, but they have also been reported in wrestlers, gymnasts and hockey players. This is generally a brief, self-limited injury, but recovery can take weeks to months in severe cases. The injury often becomes a recurrent problem and occasionally leads to a chronic syndrome.

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Neck Strain and Whiplash

Whiplash is a soft tissue neck injury that can include spraining the neck ligaments, straining the neck muscles, injury to cervical discs, and possible nerve injury. Whiplash can occur with any sudden, violent, backward jerk of the head or neck. Symptoms, such as neck stiffness, pain, numbness, tingling, decreased range of neck motion, muscle spasms, headache, and unusual fatigue often develop in the hours after the injury although they can also develop a few days afterward. Your doctor can advise on the best treatment plan for your individual condition.

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Knee Cartilage Injury

A common knee injury is a meniscal tear. Basically, it is torn cartilage in your knee resulting in pain. You can reduce your chances of knee injury by taking the time to strengthen and stretch the muscles around the knee, like the quadriceps or hamstrings. Exercises that focus on the hips and knee joint will also help.

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Meniscus Tear

A meniscal tear is a tear in the meniscus. The meniscus is cartilage, which acts as a shock-absorbing structure in the knee. There are 2 menisci in each knee, a medial one on the inside, and a lateral one on the outside. There are different types of tears depending on the location and how they look. Treatment depends on the severity of the tear. Most injuries to the meniscus are caused by trauma. This usually includes compression and twisting of the knee. Because the aging process tends to break down the inner tissues of the meniscus, minor trauma can injure the meniscus in an older adult.

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Patellar Tendon Injury

The patellar tendon connects the kneecap to the lower leg bone. Tendinopathy is an injury to the tendon. It can cause pain, swelling, and limited movement. The injury can include tendonitis (inflammation of the tendon) or tendinosis (tiny tears in the tissue with no significant inflammation). Tendinopathy is generally caused by overuse of a muscle-tendon unit. Over time, the strain on the tendon causes structural changes within the tendon. Patellar tendinopathy occurs from overuse of the patellar tendon, and is of particular issue with athletes who endure frequent impact to the knee and engage in frequent starts and stops, and jumping, such as in football.

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ACL Injury (Anterior Cruciate Ligament)

An Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury is a tear in the ACL ligament, which is located in the middle of the knee joint, connecting the lower leg bone to the thigh bone. It stabilizes the knee and prevents the lower leg bone from sliding too far forward at the knee.

ACL injury occurs when your knee gets twisted or during a hard landing from a jump. It can also happen with sudden stops or changes in direction, sidestepping or pivoting, or as is most likely in NFL injuries, after direct contact with another player. Symptoms may include a popping sound at the time of the injury, pain and swelling in the knee, loss of full range of motion, weakness or instability in the knee, and difficulty walking.

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LCL Injury (Lateral Collateral Ligament)

Your knee ligaments connect your thighbone to your lower leg bones. Knee ligament sprains or tears are a common sports injury. Athletes who participate in direct contact sports like football or soccer are more likely to injure their collateral ligaments. The Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) runs "outside" the leg, and connects the femur to the fibula in the lower leg. If you injure your LCL, you generally injure other areas joint as well, due to the complicated structure of the outside of the leg.

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MCL Injury (Medial Collateral Ligament)

Your knee ligaments connect your thighbone to your lower leg bones. Knee ligament sprains or tears are a common sports injury. Athletes who participate in direct contact sports like football or soccer are more likely to injure their collateral ligaments. The Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) runs "inside" the leg, connecting the femur to the tibia. The MCL is injured the most often of the ligaments in the leg.

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PCL Injury (Posterior Cruciate Ligament)

The Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) is connective tissue located within the knee. The PCL connects the thighbone to the shinbone. This connection keeps the shinbone from moving too far backward, stabilizing the knee. A PCL tear may cause pain and swelling in the knee, soreness in the area behind the knee, weakness or instability in the knee, difficulty walking, and pain when moving the knee. Diagnosis involves a detailed intake of symptoms and medical history, along with a physical exam. Imaging may be done via X-ray or MRI scan.

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Blisters and Infections

Blisters are fluid-filled bumps on the skin that are generally caused by friction or constant pressure, such as rubbing or wearing an ill-fitting shoe. The fluid in a blister is usually clear, but may be bloody, cloudy, or containing pus. Blisters often heal without treatment, but should be treated tenderly. You should not pop, lance, or scratch the blister, and should check with your doctor if the blister is abnormally large, is in a sensitive area, is associated with a burn, or begins to show signs of infection (such as increasing redness around the blister, red streaks, severe swelling, pus drainage, fever, or an increase in pain).

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Bone Spurs and Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is inflammation of the plantar fascia, which is a thick band of tissue attached to the heel bone that supports the arch of the foot. Plantar fasciitis is caused by small, repetitive trauma to the plantar fascia. This trauma can be due to activity that puts extra stress on the foot. Bone spurs (osteophytes) are tiny bony projections that form along the edges of bones, and often where bones join each other. Bone spurs are usually not sharp, but the extra bone material wears on the other bones or soft tissue surrounding it, and causes pain and swelling. When one develops plantar fasciitis, one of the natural remedies the body attempts for healing can produce bone spurs. Typically bone spurs will resolve independently over time.

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Calf Muscle Injury

A calf muscle strain is a partial or complete tear of the small fibers of the muscles. The calf muscles are located in the back of your lower leg. Participation in sports that require bursts of speed is a large contributing factor in calf muscle injury. This includes track sports like running, hurdles, or long jump. Other sports include basketball, soccer, football, or rugby. Recovery time can vary depending on the severity of the injury.

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Compartment Syndrome

Chronic compartment syndrome (CCS) occurs when pressure builds up within the body’s muscle compartments. Compartments are made of sheets of connective tissue called fascia. These sheets are under the skin of the arms and legs. They wrap around groups of muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. When pressure builds up in the compartments, it disrupts or blocks blood flow to the muscles and nerves. This condition becomes "acute" when pressure reaches a certain point and blocks blood flow. Blood vessels may fail and tissue dies. Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) can affect the arms, hands, legs, feet, and buttocks.

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Groin Pull

A groin pull is a partial or complete tear of the small fibers of the adductor muscles. The adductors are a group of muscles located on the inner side of the thigh. They start in the groin area and run down the inner thigh to attach to the inner side of the knee.

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Hamstring Injury

A hamstring strain (a series of small tears in the muscle) is an injury to the muscles in the back of the thigh. These muscles run from above the hip to the knee joint. The tendon attached to the muscle may also have some damage. A hamstring strain can be caused by stretching the muscle too fast and/or too far or suddenly putting stress on the muscles when they are not ready for the stress, which can be common in quick-switch activities such as running routes in football.

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Hip Pointer

A hip pointer is a bruise to the upper part of your hip where many muscles, including abdominal muscles, attach. A hip pointer can involve injury to bone and soft tissue. Hip pointers are caused by a direct blow to the bony part of the pelvis, commonly occurring when the pelvis comes into contact with a hard object, like a helmet. It can also occur by taking a hard fall onto the hip, as happens frequently in football and other contact sports.

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IT Band Syndrome (Iliotibial Band)

Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is an overuse injury. The iliotibial band (ITB) is a thick band of fibrous tissue. It runs from the hip down the outside of the thigh and attaches to the tibia. The tibia is the large bone of the lower leg. ITBS is caused by repetitive friction or rubbing of the iliotibial band against the bone on the outer side of the knee. This excessive rubbing can irritate the ITB and/or the tissue underneath.

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Knee Cartilage Injury

A common knee injury is a meniscal tear. Basically, it is torn cartilage in your knee resulting in pain. You can reduce your chances of knee injury by taking the time to strengthen and stretch the muscles around the knee, like the quadriceps or hamstrings. Exercises that focus on the hips and knee joint will also help.

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Lisfranc Ligament Injury

Per the AAOS, Lisfranc (midfoot) injuries result if bones in the midfoot are broken or ligaments that support the midfoot are torn. The severity of the injury can vary from simple to complex, involving many joints and bones in the midfoot. A Lisfranc injury is often mistaken for a simple sprain, especially if the injury is a result of a straightforward twist and fall. However, injury to the Lisfranc joint is not a simple sprain that should be simply "walked off." It is a severe injury that may take many months to heal and may require surgery to treat.

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Osteochondritis Dissecans

Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is a condition that develops in joints, most often in children and adolescents. It occurs when a small segment of bone begins to separate from its surrounding region due to a lack of blood supply. As a result, the small piece of bone and the cartilage covering it begin to crack and loosen. The most common joints affected by osteochondritis dissecans are the knee, ankle and elbow, although it can also occur in other joints. The condition typically affects just one joint, however, some people can develop OCD in several joints.

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Stress Reactions (Fractures)

A stress fracture (or stress reaction) is a tiny crack in the bone from chronic overuse, not acute trauma. Most stress fractures occur in the lower leg and foot. They can also occur in the hip and other areas. There are several ways to treat stress reactions, and your doctor and/or physical therapist can advise which path is correct for your injury.

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Turf Toe

Turf toe is a sprain of the base of the big toe where the big toe meets the foot. It is usually a hyperextension sprain of the first joint of the toe that occurs when the big toe is forced to extend beyond its normal range of motion. This injury can be caused by standing on the balls of your feet as another person falls onto you, causing your big toe to hyperextend, or stopping suddenly when running, causing your big toe to slide into the end of your shoe and bend up and backward as you go forward. The injury is called turf toe because it often occurs in football and soccer players when playing on artificial turf.

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Fractured Clavicle (Collarbone)

A clavicle fracture is a break in the clavicle bone (also called the collarbone). It connects the sternum (breastplate) to the shoulder. A clavicle fracture is caused by trauma to the clavicle bone, and can happen in one or more of three different places. The trauma is usually caused by either a direct blow to the clavicle or falling on an outstretched arm or on the point of the shoulder. Either of these can be common football injuries.

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Separated Shoulder (AC Joint Injury)

The acromioclavicular (AC) joint is between the upper part of the shoulder blade and the collarbone. AC joint separation happens when the ligaments of this joint become damaged or torn. This causes a separation between the shoulder blade and the collarbone.

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Shoulder Tendonitis and Rotator Cuff Injury

Tendinopathy is an injury to the tendon, causing pain, inflammation, and limited movement. Tendinopathy may be tendonitis with tiny tears in the tendon (no significant inflammation) or tears with significant inflammation, which is less common. There are several tendons in the shoulder which are attached to muscles of the rotator cuff and the biceps muscle of the arm. These tendons connect muscle to bone, often near a joint. Rotator cuff injury may include tendinitis, strain, or tear of the rotator cuff. The rotator cuff is made up of muscles and 4 separate tendons that fuse together to surround the shoulder joint.

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Contact Us

For more information about a specific injury or condition, to inquire about Athletic Training, Physical Therapy, or Sports Performance programs, or to schedule a consultation with one of our physicians, call (804) 360-6500, or click on one of the links below to schedule an appointment online.